When magma is injected or removed from the system, surrounding rock will either shift to make room for the injected magma, or fill in a vacated area. But make no mistake—the Seattle-Tacoma area has the potential to have large and destructive quakes! 19. Briefly name and explain the popular explanation for how faults move. If a magnitude 9.0 earthquake were to hit the Pacific Northwest, People in Seattle would fare much better if the epicenter struck beneath the tip of … How do we know that Earth has a core, given that we cannot drill a hole that deep? But earthquakes you will never feel,” Chang said. Cascadia Subduction Zone. Other faults thought capable of producing magnitude ~7 earthquakes include the San Jacinto, Whittier-Elsinore, Newport-Inglewood, Palos Verdes, Malibu Coast, Hollywood, Sierra Madre, Cucamonga, and maybe the Puente Hills faults. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. As a Rayleigh wave moves across the earth’s surface, the earth moves up and down like an ocean wave. Given two chunks of the mantle, both of which are the same composition and are under the same pressure (because they are at the same depth) but chunk A is hotter than chunk B, chunk A will be less dense than chunk B. Particle motion in a P wave is parallel to the direction in which the wave propagates, because a P wave is a compressional wave. Give 3 reasons why Salt Lake City, Provo, and Ogden are in particular danger of a large earthquake. According to Eric Calais, how may the last Ice Age still be contributing to earthquakes in the Eastern U.S.? CREDIT: ELAINE THOMPSON/AP when plate boundaries break along a fault; as a result, seismic waves (energy released) make the ground shake. Canada, Gulf of Mexico, Rocky Mountains, Atlantic sea. Where is the epicenter of an earthquake located? Of the three major flavors of earthquake waves (P, S and surface), which one can travel through the interior of the Earth and propagate through liquid, solid and gas? ​Deep-focus earthquakes are associated with the subduction of the lithosphere into the mantle. If you have two chunks of the mantle, both of which are the same composition and are under the same pressure (because they are at the same depth) but chunk A is hotter than chunk B, how will their densities compare with one another? What is an example of a seismic body wave? Magma causes rock to liquify and rocks volume expands neighboring brittle rock fractures to make room. What event 480 million years ago laid the foundation for the 2011 Virginia Earthquake? It takes three geographically separate seismographs to locate an earthquake epicenter by triangulation. The deepest earthquakes ever recorded are as deep as ~700 km. the name of the major plate-boundary fault in California is the San Andreas fault. Name one major earthquake on the eastern side of the Sierra Nevada Mts. What does the amplitude of the seismic signal recorded by a seismograph tell us about an earthquake, once the distance to the epicenter is known? 16. What is this process called? 4. P waves are the fastest seismic waves, and so arrive at a distant seismograph first. A seismic body wave is an elastic wave that is able to pass through the solid interior of Earth. analyzing the amounts of radioactive carbon in organic material found in sediment layers; trench wall exposure of fault-rupture sizes. How do we know that there are density variations in the mantle? We know that Earth has a liquid outer core because S waves do not pass through it. Of the three major flavors of earthquake waves (P, S and surface), which one causes the most damage to buildings? Body waves travel through the Earth's interior a. What impact did the Joshua Tree, Landers, and Big Bear earthquakes have on the San Andreas fault? 6. Seismic waves are said to be either body waves or surface waves. Continental crusts heating and stretching; thinning and extending. P waves can travel through the interior of Earth, through liquid, solid and gas. ​Tsunamis get to be such tall, broad waves when they reach the shoreline because the entire water column, from the bottom of the ocean to the top, is in motion away from the place where the tsunami was generated, and this huge mass of water builds great waves as the seafloor shallows near the coastline. What are the 3 classes of fault-movement timing identified by T.K. The tectonic plates are always slowly moving, but they get stuck at their edges due to friction. Rayleigh waves can move through the surface of both earth and water. 28. When an earthquake occurs on one of these faults, the rock on one side of the fault slips with respect to the other. 17. How much has the state of Nevada grown in the last 30 million years? 18. The fault surface can be vertical, horizontal, or at some angle to the surface of the earth. When boiling lava tries to break through the surface of the earth, with the increased pressure of gases, certain movements caused in the earth’s crust. Of the three major flavors of earthquake waves (P, S and surface), which one is fastest and so arrives at a distant seismograph first? The Mercali intensity scale for earthquakes is useful in planning the locations of critical and sensitive facilities (hospitals, schools, police stations, fire stations, electrical and water-supply facilities, etc.) The rocks are folded. ; who witnessed this quake? 31. ...Waco? pulled a triangle of crust away from the fault, reducing the pressure that had it together. What causes thrust faults; what is a blind trust fault? Start studying What causes earthquakes. Do all states in the U.S. have earthquakes? How does elastic rebound theory explain the behavior of faults and the energy released during an earthquake? The San Andreas fault is not the only fault capable of producing large earthquakes in southern California. What does the time difference between the first arrival of P and S waves tell us about an earthquake? A magnitude 5.8 earthquake in 2011 in Mineral, Virginia, was felt up to 600 miles from the epicenter. Earthquake experts say current building codes don’t reflect the Seattle area’s riskiest features — but the outlook could improve if the Really Big One can wait. convection cells push the plates and they push back and get stuck and the pressure builds and it breaks releasing the tension Why dont people want to try to create smaller earthquakes to prevent bigger earthquakes? 20. A collection of Javascript utilities to be incorporated into scientific courseware. What is the cause of most, if not all, earthquakes in the crust (i.e., shallow-focus earthquakes)? How useful have been earthquake predictions based on earthquake weather, Nostradamus, psychics, or scientists working on the Parkfield Prediction Experiment? Fallen bricks cover parked cars in Seattle’s Pioneer Square district after the 2001 Nisqually Earthquake. Corrisponds to the St. Gervieve fault zone; there was a meteorite impact 350 mil. What is the cause of earthquakes on the Hawaiian Islands? What unique events accompanied the New Madrid earthquakes? 24. The main cause of the earthquake is volcanic eruptions. Start studying What Causes Earthquakes?. Imagine two buildings of similar construction: a green building with a foundation built on hard bedrock and a blue building with a foundation built on soft sandy deposits. What is the primary tool that society uses to protect its citizens from death and injury due to earthquakes? If we define the energy difference between a Richter-style magnitude 1 earthquake and a magnitude 2 earthquake as equal to 30 screaming cheerleaders, what is the energy difference between a magnitude 5 earthquake and a magnitude 8 earthquake? How do we know that Earth has a liquid outer core? This earthquake caused parts of Restoration Point near on Bainbridge Island to be lifted 35 feet straight up. Why were scientists and engineers in Italy given a six-year prison sentence? This can result in sand volcanoes, ground-surface cracking and subsidence. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. What has created the Basin and Range province; what kind of faults occur here? There is a significant chance of a damaging earthquake during the next 500 years near Los Angeles, Seattle, Memphis and Salt Lake City.There is little significant chance of a damaging earthquake during the next 500 years near Chicago, New York, Dallas or Waco. The recent increase in earthquakes in the central United States is primarily caused by disposal of waste fluids that are a byproduct of oil production. Earthquakes. The primary cause of human death and injury during an earthquake is building collapse. Earthquakes are caused by the sudden release of energy within some limited region of the rocks of the Earth. Wastewater disposal wells typically operate for longer durations and inject much more fluid than is injected during the hydraulic fracturing process, making them more likely to induce earthquakes. What is unique about the 1886 Charleston Earthquake? It begins naturally under the surface. Earthquakes are caused by energy released from tectonic plates shifting beneath the earth's surface, while volcanoes are mountains that trap gas and vapor underground until intense pressure forces an eruption. Briefly name and explain the new view for how faults move. What are 3 of the 5 evidences for a major earthquake on the Seattle Fault some 1,100 years ago? There is a significant chance of a damaging earthquake during the next 500 years near Los Angeles, Seattle, Memphis and Salt Lake City.There is little significant chance of a damaging earthquake during the next 500 years near Chicago, New York, Dallas or Waco. Earthquakes can cause the ground to shake violently, creating hazards, such as rockslides, falling objects and collapsed buildings. 25. 15. Now let’s visit the 3 most dangerous earthquake faults for Seattle one by one: 1. One analysis estimates a magnitude 6.7 quake on the Seattle fault today could cause $33 billion in damage and kill as many as 1,600 people. A. Most of the earthquakes that take place are caused by this activity. A study published in the journal Seismological Research Letters this week identified 730 sites where human activity caused earthquakes over the past 150 years. These actions are the cause of volcanic earthquakes. Earthquakes occur on faults - strike-slip earthquakes occur on strike-slip faults, normal earthquakes occur on normal faults, and thrust earthquakes occur on thrust or reverse faults. What causes most fires that damage urban areas after an earthquake? Which building will be shaken more violently, with higher-amplitude seismic waves, during an earthquake? Multiple Choice Questions for Earthquakes - Chapter 16 Each chapter will include a few questions designed to test your knowledge of material covered in the chapter and in the Internet-based resources. 2001: At 10:54 a.m. on February 28, 2001, a deep earthquake centered near the Nisqually Delta northwest of Olympia startles the entire Puget Sound region and causes more than $1 billion in … Glacial Meltwater paired into Mississippi and Ohio River, eroding huge volcanoes of sediment, so the land rebounded upward , reducing stresses that held underlying faults. If we define the energy difference between a Richter-style magnitude 1 earthquake and a magnitude 2 earthquake as equal to 30 screaming cheerleaders, the energy difference between a magnitude 5 earthquake and a magnitude 8 earthquake is 30x30x30 screaming cheerleaders. The U.S. Geological Survey reports that a 4.6 magnitude earthquake has rattled the Three Lakes area of Washington state, less than 50 miles northeast of Seattle. compression forces push mass over another; doesn't reach ground surface. What is forming the Rio Grande Rift and why is Albuquerque in danger of future earthquakes? On September 19, a magnitude 7.1 earthquake rocked central Mexico, with fatalities estimated in the hundreds—the largest, most serious earthquake of at … Give 3 reasons why the cities of Memphis, St. Louis, and Nashville are particularly in danger from future earthquakes on the Reelfoot Rift. What is our success rate at forecasting earthquakes on shorter timescales? charged for the felony of manslaughter for reassuring the public. 2. Volcanic earthquakes are triggered by changes in the magmatic system within and beneath the volcano. Is there a significant chance of an earthquake occurring in the next 500 years that would cause major damage in Los Angeles? 1. The Mercali intensity at a given location is determined based on the phenomena that people observe during the earthquake at that location: sights, sounds, damage, vibrations in surface water, etc. The land moved like waves throwing things into the air, waves bursted, fissures farmed and some immediatly. What was unique about the 1994 Northridge Earthquake? Chapter 8 Earthquakes SECTION 1 WHAT ARE EARTHQUAKES? Seattle Tacoma Area, Washington has had: (M1.5 or greater) 0 earthquakes in the past 24 hours 2 earthquakes in the past 7 days; 12 earthquakes in the past 30 days Why is the St. Lawrence River Valley subject to earthquakes; why is the most active zone near Charlesvois? A Seattle Fault quake could be as large as M7.5,160 but less than M7.0 is more probable. 2. When the stress on the edge overcomes the friction, there is an earthquake that releases energy in waves that travel through the … We know that Earth has a core because of the way seismic waves are reflected and refracted off of the core-mantle boundary. 29. That's more than 12,000 earthquakes in 30 years! years ago creating small fractures. When the pressure is released, an earthquake occurs. What is the name of the major plate-boundary fault in California? This movement created a tsunami in Puget Sound and triggered a large landslide into Lake Washington. What is sea level spreading. An earthquake is caused by a sudden slip on a fault. 14. ...Seattle? Primary waves (or P waves) are compressional waves that vibrate in the direction of propagation; think of "push" waves. Most earthquakes occur along or near plate boundaries. Access the answers to hundreds of Earthquakes questions that are explained in a way that's easy for you to understand. 1. landslides carrying trees upright to the bottom of Lake Washington. A fault is a break in the crust that rocks slide along. Why is the Mercali intensity scale useful? There are two types of vibrations produced by earthquakes 1. How did the Landers Earthquake differ from most earthquakes? 27. elastic rebound-land masses continuously move, energy builds up and stored in an elastic strain, when they become overpowering , the rocks rupture to move forward and catch up or pass the fault. because it helps us map the areas that are most seriously affected by earthquakes. ; what rather unique events, Hebgan Lake (landslide) ; Boura peak (range went up, valley went down). The movement of the plates causes pressure to build up. That magnitude 6.8 quake is the most recent one to cause significant damage and injuries in the Pacific Northwest. Why do some tsunamis get to be such tall waves when they reach the shoreline? The time difference between the first arrival of P and S waves at a given seismograph tells us the distance (but not the direction) from that seismograph to the epicenter. 32. An earthquake on the Seattle Fault poses the greatest risk to Seattle because: The Seattle Fault Zone extends east-west through the middle of the city. What causes earthquakes? ...Memphis? 3. We know that the density of the mantle increases with depth because of the time it takes for a P wave to travel through the mantle from an earthquake to a distant seismograph. Is California's major plate-boundary fault the only fault capable of producing large earthquakes in southern California? Tens of millions of people in the eastern United States and southeastern Canada felt this earthquake. Rockwell? Ice on soft lake sediments, live on sharply defined faults (wastach) scorps havent had one since 1847. Start studying Chapter 5: Earthquakes Throughout the United States. Formation … In the process of liquifaction, an earthquake shakes loosely-packed (unconsolidated) fine/medium-grained sandy material that is saturated with water and the grains tend to reorganize into a more tightly packed mass and the excess water is pushed upward, resulting in phenomena such as sand volcanoes, ground-surface cracking and subsidence. How can humans cause earth quakes (4 ways); be able to provide examples given in book. The primary tool that society uses to protect its citizens from death and injury due to earthquakes is proper enforcement of a well designed building code. The energy can be released by elastic strain, gravity, chemical reactions, or even the motion of massive bodies. What is a body wave? Why may the next earthquake on the Seattle Fault cause "stunning levels of death and destruction"? 21. 12. Not surprisingly, the 10 states with the most earthquakes are in the western U.S. What causes earthquakes? Over how large an area was the New Madrid earthquakes felt; why? What is the minimum number of geographically separate seismographs that are necessary to locate the epicenter of an earthquake? Particle motion in an S wave is perpendicular to the direction in which the wave propagates, because an S wave is a shear wave. 11. ...Dallas? The city of Seattle is very susceptible to earthquake-related damage because it ____. Stories from tribes near Seattle have also helped us to learn that the last earthquake on the Seattle fault was about AD 900–950. What is the primary cause of human death and injury during an earthquake? Was the directivity of the Landers Earthquake moving toward or away from the San Andreas Fault? How was the Reelfoot Rift formed 550 million years ago? 3. 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