[46] In addition, the newly completed student parking structure C collapsed, and had to be demolished. Occurring 16.5 miles northwest of Los Angeles, the height of the Northridge quake activity was just 11.8 miles below the Earth's crust, making sitting ducks of one of the nation's largest populations. In addition, property damage was estimated to be $13–50 billion (equivalent to $22–86 billion in 2014),[12] making it one of the costliest natural disasters in U.S. history. Although casualties resulting from the Northridge quake were relatively minimal because it was early morning and on the Martin Luther King holiday, will such coincidences save lives next time? earthquake to date. Sheffi, Y. Many classes were moved to temporary structures. But when the Northridge earthquake hit one month later, Engelhardt’s theory proved … [38][39] James E. Roberts was chief bridge engineer with Caltrans and was placed in charge of the seismic retrofit program for Caltrans until his death in 2006. The Northridge earthquake produced the strongest ground motions ever instrumentally recorded in a North American urban setting. Aftershocks The 203 cases reported, of which three resulted in fatalities, constituted roughly 10 times the normal rate in the initial eight weeks. [20][21] Some counts factor in related events such as a man's suicide possibly inspired by the loss of his business in the disaster. Structural damage was recorded as far away as 52 miles from the heart of the shake, and earthquake activity was felt from Las Vegas, Nevada, to San Diego. NBC station KNBC was the first television station to go on the air, with reporter Joe Rico beginning the station's coverage just two minutes after the earthquake began[52] while anchors Kent Shocknek, Carla Aragon, Colleen Williams and Chuck Henry were producing special reports throughout the morning. Ground deformations at this level of accelerations are expected to be highly nonlinear (Hardin 1985. Numerous Los Angeles museums, including the Art Deco Building in Hollywood, were closed, as were numerous city shopping malls. The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, home to the 1932 and 1984 Olympics, suffered more than $44 million in damage. The earthquake also gained worldwide attention because of damage to the vast freeway network, which serves millions of commuters every day. Landers earthquake [Blewitt et al., 1993; Bock et al., 1993a], the largest magnitude earthquake in California in the past 40 years and the first one to be recorded by a continuous GPS array. 30, No. The daily commute for many drivers in the weeks following was significantly lengthened, notably for those traveling between Santa Clarita and Los Angeles, and commuters on I-10 traveling to and from the Westside. The University of Southern California suffered some structural damage to several older campus buildings, but classes were conducted as scheduled. Structural damage was recorded as far away as 52 miles from the heart of the shake, and earthquake activity was felt from Las Vegas, Nevada, to San Diego. In the weeks following the quake, many San Fernando Valley residents had either lost their homes entirely or experienced structural damage too severe to continue living in them without making repairs. For example, the behavior of underground walls has been evaluated for the Northridge earthquake using numerical methods. The Northridge earthquake produced the strongest ground motions ever instrumentally recorded in a North American urban setting. Thousands of aftershocks devastated already weathered buildings, trapping many people below the rubble of parking structures and freeway overpasses. The quake produced unusually strong ground accelerations in the range of 1.0 g. Damage was also caused by fire and landslides. Additionally, many businesses were forced to relocate or use temporary facilities in order to accommodate structural damage to their original locations or the difficulty accessing them. Urban Search and Rescue Teams and Disaster Medical Assistance Teams were important elements in the response to the Northridge earthquake. Twenty years ago, on Jan. 17, 1994, at 4:31 a.m., the Northridge earthquake struck Southern California — the 6.7-magnitude quake killed 60 people and … British musicians Paul Hardcastle and Simon Harris narrowly escaped injury and were among guests evacuated when the Sheraton-Universal Hotel in Universal City, California where they were staying was damaged during the earthquake. Damage to wood-frame apartment houses was widespread in the San Fernando Valley and Santa Monica areas, especially to structures with soft first floor or lower-level parking garages. [24] The Northridge Fashion Center and California State University, Northridge also sustained very heavy damage – most notably the collapse of parking structures. The mainshock was followed by an energetic aftershock sequence. This followed on an earlier economic conference the administration had done in 1993, focusing on recovery after a series of aerospace spending cuts. Due to the large amount lost by insurance companies, most insurance companies either stopped offering or severely restricted earthquake insurance in California. That is the view of Don Kramer, chairman and CEO of ILS Capital Management, who says that the London market had looked at the nascent Bermuda catastrophe market and regarded it as being one big loss away from disappearing. However, the damage revealed that some structural specifications did not perform as intended. As one of the costliest natural disasters in U.S. history, estimated at more than $40 billion, Northridge can be compared in terms of financial loss to 1992 Hurricane Andrew and the tragedy of Hurricane Katrina. The high accelerations, both vertical and horizontal, lifted structures off their foundations and shifted walls — laterally triggering major fires. SELIGSON Northridge earthquake is estimated to be $1.3 to 2.2 billion in 1994 90% confidencebounds,equivalentto$1.8to2.9billionin2005 .Thisisequivalent to 3–4% of the estimated $50 billion in 1994 estimated direct capital losses and direct business interruption losses. Production came to a halt. The major Hollywood film studios including Warner Bros., 20th Century Fox, Columbia Pictures, Paramount Pictures, Walt Disney Studios and Universal Studios were also shut down. The post-Northridge conference was modeled on this earlier effort and provided an opportunity to talk about short-term earthquake recovery efforts while highlight longer-term economic development programs and plans put into motion in 1993. In 1993, the year before the Northridge quake, shocks in that range numbered 141 worldwide. He likely did not realize until too late in the early morning darkness that the elevated roadway had collapsed. At the time of the quake, before dawn on Monday morning, the Warner Bros. film Murder in the First (with Christian Slater, Kevin Bacon, and Gary Oldman) was actually being filmed only four miles (6.4 km) from the epicenter. CSUN President Dr. Blenda Wilson assured the rental of temporary structures to be placed in available spaces throughout the campus. Two 6.0 Mw  aftershocks followed, the first about one minute after the initial event and the second approximately 11 hours later, the strongest of several thousand aftershocks in all. A dislocation model of the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake determined from strong ground motions, USGS Open-file Report, 94-278, 16pp. [32] Most of the cases occurred immediately downwind of the landslides. The damage The Los Angeles Public Library shut down most of its branches; books were knocked down during the quake. The California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP), a CGS program, manages more than 1,300 strong motion instruments statewide that contribute data to ShakeMap. In Valencia, the California Institute of the Arts experienced heavy damage, with classes relocated to a nearby Lockheed test facility for the remainder of 1994. The acute phase of the disaster ended within 48 to 72 hours and public health then became the predominant health-care issue. The Northridge earthquake triggered a very large number Written discussion of this paper is welcomed and will be of strong motion instruments throughout southern California, received by the Editor until August 3 1, 1995 (address inside providing the most extensive strong motion data for any front cover). motions produced by the 1994 Northridge Earthquake (Mw=6.7). In December 1993, the Journal of ... called it controversial. 114,039 buildings damaged. J. Civ. Other local television stations, including KTLA, KCAL-TV, KCBS-TV and KABC-TV, were also knocked off the air. The Northridge earthquake on January 17, 1993 was 6.7 on the Richter scale. Also, because of known seismic activity in California, area building codes dictate that buildings incorporate structural design intended to withstand earthquakes. The question has been addressed by scientists of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). It presents an opportunity to examine a significant number of such buildings affected to various degrees by severe ground shaking, to document actual damage in depth, and to dispel the myths about the This respiratory disease is caused by inhaling airborne spores of the fungus. [43] The 1994 Northridge earthquake greatly affected the CSUN campus, damaging much of its infrastructure, and causing multiple fires and explosions throughout the campus. [citation needed] Mark & Brian's morning show on KLOS was also affected. USGS Response to an Urban Earthquake - Northridge 1994 (Summary) Sixty people were killed, more than 7,000 injured, 20,000 homeless and more than 40,000 buildings damaged in Los Angeles, Ventura, Orange and San Bernardino Counties as a result of the Northridge earthquake of January 17, 1994. The Northridge earthquake is part of the temporal increase in earthquake activity in the Los Angeles area since 1970. Science 1994 ; 266 : 389 – 397 . Since the the NEHRP's induction, the California Department of Conservation has installed seismic hazard mapping and zoning graphs. Faults with the highest probability of rupturing in a magnitude 6.7 (Northridge-sized) earthquake in the next 30 years. Especially hard hit was the area between Santa Monica Canyon and Saint John's Hospital, a linear corridor that suffered a significant amount of property damage. At a magnitude of 6.7, the 1994 Northridge earthquake wasn’t unusual in terms of its size. The Northridge earthquake of 1994 served to prove the value of the Bermuda market at a time when it was facing negative attitudes from the Lloyd’s market. The Martin Luther King Jr. Subsequently, a team was sent out to film footage of the quake-damaged areas of the city. The most notable was to the Santa Monica Freeway, Interstate 10, known as the busiest freeway in the United States, congesting nearby surface roads for three months while the freeway was repaired. After the shaking earth had already demolished many parts of Southern California, a Los Angeles Police officer was unaware of disaster to come while riding his motorcycle to work from his home in Lancaster, north of the quake's epicenter. [50] CSUN also received assistance from government agencies FEMA and OES to support the recovery effort and serve the needs of the local community. BELOW: A ShakeMap of the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Los Angeles Mayor Richard Riordan declared a state of emergency and issued curfews in the area, while Governor Pete Wilson and President Bill Clinton visited Los Angeles to tour the area. Similar measurements across the Los Angeles basin indicate shortening rates of 5-10 mmlyr [Feigl et al., 1993]. The Star Trek: Deep Space Nine episode "Profit and Loss" was being filmed at the time, and actors Armin Shimerman and Edward Wiley left the Paramount Pictures lot in full Ferengi and Cardassian makeup, respectively. The 1994 Northridge earthquake was a moment magnitude 6.7 (Mw), blind thrust earthquake that occurred on January 17, 1994, at 4:30:55 a.m. PST in the San Fernando Valley region of the County of Los Angeles. . The comparison of the seismic behavior of underground braced walls with ACI 318 design method reveals that bending moment and shear force of the walls under Northridge earthquake loads were observed to reach 2.8 and 2.7 times as large as the respective allowable limits. [citation needed]. Urban Transportation Networks-Equilibrium Analysis with Mathematical [44] The 6.7 magnitude earthquake damaged several buildings as well as destroying all communications, such as telephone lines and causing computer systems to shut down. Look back at KNBCʼs coverage of the the 1994 Northridge earthquake. The Archdiocese of Los Angeles's Cathedral of St. Vibiana suffered severe damage and canceled activities until a new cathedral was built in 2002. Farther north, the Newhall Pass interchange of Interstate 5 (the Golden State Freeway) and State Route 14 (the Antelope Valley Freeway) collapsed as it had 23 years earlier in the 1971 Sylmar earthquake, even though it had been rebuilt with minor improvements to the structural components. Two of the strongest earthquakes ever to hit California strike the desert area east of Los Angeles on June 28, 1992. Earthquakes in Southern California 1981-1993 ... National Seismic Hazards Map faults in Southern California (including recently recognized blind thrust fault of the Northridge earthquake (yellow) and other known blind thrust faults at the time. The first study, conducted in 1994, focuses on the ways in which the 1993 Midwest floods affected the operations of businesses in Des Moines/Polk County Iowa; the second project, which was recently completed, uses a similar methodological approach to assess the impacts of the 1994 Northridge earthquake on businesses in Los Angeles and Santa Monica, CA. Geological Survey and Southern California Earthquake Center: The magnitude 6.7 Northridge, California, earthquake of 17 January 1994. Northridge Earthquake 20th Anniversary, January 17, 2014 Audio Description: https://www.dot.ca.gov/AD/Northridge Earthquake January 17, 1994 Text The long-term (1978 to 1993) background seismicity in the Earthquake Northridge California 1994 . [47] In the Science Complex, Building #1 and #2 suffered fire damage while the bridges connecting buildings #3 #4 were closed and named unstable. Objective: The 1994 earthquake that struck Northridge, California, led to the closure of the Veterans Health Administration Medical Center at Sepulveda. It focuses on the 1994 Northridge Earthquake in the US and other recent disasters to examine vulnerability and post-disaster recovery strategies. The United States Postal Service suspended all mail service throughout the Los Angeles area for several days. Parade, scheduled to take place on January 17, was not held. As reviewed by Aki [1993], and more thoroughly by Beresnev and Wen [1996], scattered seismological evidence of sediment nonlinearity has emerged from more recent The third major earthquake to occur in the state in 23 years (after the 1971 San Fernando Valley and 1989 San Francisco–Oakland earthquakes), the . In particular, buildings with an unstable first floor (such as those with parking areas on the bottom) performed poorly. "Fatal and hospitalized injuries resulting from the 1994 Northridge earthquake", https://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/obituary-iris-adrian-1440804.html, "25 Years Later: The Desperate Search for Survivors at Northridge Meadows Apartments", "Federal Highway Administration Research and Technology", "Interchange Named for Officer Who Died in Quake", "Earthquake: Disaster Before Dawn: Scoreboard Crashes Onto Seats in Anaheim Stadium: Collapse: The 17.5-ton Sony 'Jumbotron' also destroyed a section of roof as it broke loose and fell to the left-field upper deck", "Comments for the Significant Earthquake", "Dangerous L.A. apartment buildings most at risk in an earthquake are quickly being fixed", "Earthquake: The Long Road Back: Hospitals Strained to the Limit by Injured: Medical care: Doctors treat quake victims in parking lots. The Northridge earthquake led to a number of legislative changes. This was the first report of such an outbreak following an earthquake, and it is believed that the spores were carried in large clouds of dust created by seismically triggered landslides. While a notable aftershock never came, many residents opted to stay in shelters or live with friends and family outside the area for a short time following.[53]. CSUN received financial assistance for its efforts in reestablishing the damaged buildings with monetary gifts from the McCarthy Foundation, the Common Wealth Fund, and the Union Bank Foundation. This article examines the earthquake's impact on the mental health of an existing cohort of veterans who had previously used the Sepulveda Veterans Health Administration Medical Center. [45] The damage caused a shutdown of the campus and delayed the start of the 1994 Spring semester. While many businesses remained closed in the days following the quake, some infrastructure was not able to be rebuilt for months, even years later. [29] Numerous fires were also caused by broken gas lines from houses shifting off their foundations or unsecured water heaters tumbling. The Los Angeles Unified School District closed local schools throughout the area, which reopened one week later. Northridge earthquake A home in Pacific Palisades that fell down the side of a hill above Pacific Coast Highway is seen on January 21, 1994. Most were unable to meet this deadline and only managed to achieve compliance in 2008 or 2009.[34]. The Northridge earthquake of 17 January 1994, killed 57 people and injured an estimated 10,000 persons. The City of Santa Monica provided assistance to landlords dealing with repairs so tenants could return home as soon as possible. In addition, the campus received a $23,000 check (equivalent to $40,000 today) from the Los Angeles Times Valley Edition for the journalism department. The rebuilt interchange was renamed in his honor a year later.[26]. More than 8,700 were injured including 1,600 who required hospitalization. Emerging Infectious Diseases Coccidioidomycosis Following the Northridge Earthquake -- California, 1994 . California engineers had classified and codified building irregularities as early as 1980s. during the 1994 Northridge, California, Earthquake by Igor A. Beresnev, Edward H. Field, Koen Van Den Abeele, and Paul A. Johnson Abstract The study of nonlinear site response has practical difficulties due to large ambiguities in isolating local response from other competing effects. A ShakeMap is a near-real-time seismic network product that helps guide emergency response efforts within minutes of a strong earthquake. It was closed for the second time since the Loma Prieta earthquake. Six new stations opened in six weeks. A total of 58 … The Northridge earthquake of 17 January 1994, killed 57 people and injured an estimated 10,000 persons. [clarification needed] Also, ABC's General Hospital, which shoots in Los Angeles, was heavily affected. Some 600 accelerographs, similar to the "black box" recording devices on airplanes, also have been added to further help determine what kind of force buildings, bridges and other structures sustain in a quake. The cast and crew had initially thought that the scenes that were filmed before the real quake struck were a bit overdone, but upon viewing the footage after the earthquake, they were reportedly startled by the realism of it. The campus still opened and provided students with mobile classrooms and mobile offices. Jama, 277(11), 904-908. Structural damage was reported to more than 12,000 homes, businesses, schools and hospitals, leaving many people homeless for extended periods. The after-shockzoneaveraged 22eventsperyearfrom A a at E-10 E.X-20-30 B 30 20' 10' Distance(km) SCIENCE * VOL. 1994 Northridge earthquake, most of the fatalities occurred in buildings suffering from this particular type of irregular configuration. The 1994 Northridge earthquake killed more than 50 people and created widespread devastation in Los Angeles. The pe… Most casualties and damage occurred in multi-story wood frame buildings (such as the three-story Northridge Meadows apartment building). 266 * 21 OCTOBER1994 1981 to 1993 that wereaboveM1.7, which is typical of the dispersed background seis-micity in the Los Angeles region. Many multifamily apartment buildings in Santa Monica were yellow-tagged and red-tagged. Northridge Earthquake. Total daily deaths in Los Angeles County for January 1992, 1993 and 1994, showing an increase on January 17, 1994—the day of the NEQ. [27] The stadium was vacant at the time. Many campus buildings were heavily damaged and a parking structure collapsed. A magnitude 6.8 (Ms) earthquake centered under the community of Northridge in the San Fernando Valley shook the entire Los Angeles metropolitan area at 4:31 a.m. local time on Monday, January 17, 1994. [11] The death toll was 57, with more than 8,700 injured. An unusual effect of the Northridge earthquake was an outbreak of coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever) in Ventura County. Michoachan earthquake [Aki, 1993], which contributed to the collapse of more than 300 buildings [Celebi et al., 1987]. Moderate damage to the built environment was widespread; severe damage included collapsed buildings and highway overpasses. Interruptions to road transport caused Metrolink to experiment with service to Camarillo in February and Oxnard in April,[40][41] which continues today as the Ventura County Line, and extended the Antelope Valley Line almost ten years ahead of schedule. [22] Actress Iris Adrian died in September 1994 from complications of a broken hip she suffered in the earthquake. As in many previous earthquakes, geotechnical factors contributed significantly to the nature and severity of ground shaking. To make matters worse, a "blind" thrust fault quake — a fault that does not extend to the surface — is nearly impossible to predict. Ironically, that interchange had collapsed 23 years earlier, during the Sylmar Earthquake of 1971. On the other side of the Santa Monica Mountains, which separate the valley from the rest of Los Angeles, entire sections of the Santa Monica Freeway collapsed, shutting down a key traffic artery linking Downtown with the city's west side. Although those devices are important in compiling information for building structurally sound architecture, scientists are still not able to predict an earthquake. [Donnellan et al., 1993; Hudnut et al., 1995]. The airport was reopened in stages after the quake. 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